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Tactical Combat

Overview and Advanced Perspectives

This book will delineate the attributes of Tactical Combat and focus on a field proven methodology which effectively responds to the needs of terror interdiction teams and operators combating 4th Generation Warfare entities and tactics. The general underlying principle of this protocol involves the integration of the three combat sciences fundamental to Special Tactics expertise: Team Assault, Combat Marksmanship, and Tactical Close-Quarters Combat. Integration is vital to developing a non-contradictory, non eclectic system of propagation and an exacting methodology for implementation. The key to successful transformation on the Tactical Level lies in the up-grading of combat systems through the propagation of Special Tactics training throughout. These written contents serve as an essential introductory guide to Special Tactics Simultaneous Combat and are part of authorized training materials relevant to Tactical Force Response for Police and military use.

The author, American, Chief Tactical Instructor Chris Mar, spent 23 years training international SWAT, Special MP and Counterterrorist Instructors Teams. He is the founding Chief Instructor of Taiwan Special Tactics Police, the original developer of Simultaneous Combat biomechanics, the founder of APA Tactical Force Response, and the only person to receive official certification as Chief Instructor of Tactical Close Combat, for the top echelon of Special Police and Antiterrorist Instructors on both sides of the Taiwan Strait.

Table of Contents


Evolvement of Tactical Combat

Next-generation warfare involves a sociological and a technological transformation of tactical combat. In the widest sense, modern global conflict is asymmetric, involving both state centric forces and non-state-centric combatants whose actions appear casuistically inspired and self-enacting but where seemingly random and source-less acts of terror are actually part of highly organized strategies systematically put to use by those collaborating under the framework of a violent ideology. The objective is to induce public terror as an act of war. Already the 4th Generation model has relevance with the use of passenger aircraft against business landmarks and non combatants, again with the planting of high-explosives in Bali and the well-organized use of synchronized units armed with conventional assault rifles and hand grenades to terrorize, kill and take hostages in Mumbai. Each time the attacks are upon major populated densities by different factions, without any consideration to convention and espouse a single radical ideology. As devastating as each of these examples are, there is a very real threat of the use of greater technological force with more powerful weapons, especially biological, within the next five years.

The countering tactics based on rapid deployment and force projection have had initial militarily success, but as the post-conflict operations takes place, the real battle begins. It is not difficult to assume that this is the actual strategic operation in effect. The two apparent dangers of invading a foreign territory are the cost of supporting such a force and the morality of prolonging dominance over local authority and security. These are circumstances which a smaller decentralized guerilla force would author and take advantage of. At the same time some units are having more success with the adapting to local community infrastructure and cultural traditions while counter insurgency (silent use) force response is at times put to use to surgically remove insurgent fighters. These actions are representative of those transformations by which generational qualitative shifts occur; Sociological and Technological paradigm shifts become the defining focal point of two different models of warfare.

Sociological Paradigm Shifts of Tactical Combat

The establishing of the initiating period of the First Generation definition is from materials by the Military Academy at Sandhurst. The 4th Generational Model as described directly below is by a team of American analysts, including and most natably William S Lind.

First generation Warfare starts with the Napoleonic State and military fighting paradigm of that era. Smoothbore muskets and linear firing lines, columns and massive armies at the onset were the main instruments of military projection. The use of Linear Tactics revolutionized the battlefield and the adherence to Drill and Ceremony created a successful elaboration of military power. Significantly, those forces which did not employ these methods in combat were defeated.

Second Generation Warfare marks a qualitative shift by the advent of enhanced firepower and communications abilities and the Tactical use of Fire and Movement with reliance on indirect fire are characteristics of Second Generation Warfare. Though 2GW is a vast departure from its predecessor, both 1GW and 2GW are examples of Attrition Warfare

Third Generation Warfare brought to warfare a new paradigm by the use of Blitzkrieg and through the success of Russian Operations over the more heavily industrialized nations by the systemization of Maneuver Warfare encompassed by a non-linear tactical combat format and mindset. The inclusion of infiltration tactics used to bypass a direct clash with enemy lines 3GW characteristics are applicable to counter-ambush and counterattack.

Fourth Generation Warfare is apparently what we are faced with in today’s volatile circumstances. The characteristics are the decentralization of warfare; non-state centric small groups who are unable to withstand larger forces firepower rely upon terror operations, and anonymity.

Technological Paradigm Shifts of Tactical Combat              BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Some essential information of this Generational model summary reference papers prepared for The Federalist Patriot by a retired U.S. Army Counterintelligence Agent.

First Generation Warfare - As there were over a thousand years of well known tactician and war scholars before Napoleon First Generation Warfare by technological shifts describes the use of force in conflict in historical phases.

  • PHASE ONE- began in primitive combat along the lines of race and ethnicity being fought by groups of individuals who for reasons of safety and survival would clash and inflict total defeat or annihilation. Characteristics of 1st Gen Phase 1 war was the ability to use hardened weapons and use tools to produce some sort of wall for home or community defense and armor for ones own protection, perhaps over 1500-2000 years BC

  • PHASE TWO- is when teamwork in military force was utilized with a hierarchy of command, subjugation rather than annihilation and simple formational maneuvers to flank and frontally assault. This is Siege Warfare. This period may be for over 3500-4000 years of history.

  • PHASE THREE- is the advent of HUMINT (Human Intelligence – spy network, reconnaissance, surveillance and the start of Tactical Warfare utilizing deception, ruse, decoy, feint, fraud and display as tactical tools.

Second Generation Warfare is when gunpowder became fully exploited in military conflict, This is when castles began to become obsolete, but all the lessons of First Gen War were succinct and communications by pigeon, flags, smoke, signals and trumpets the addition of combat aggregators such as logistics, fire support, counterintelligence, mechanized transport and mobilized weaponry

Third Generation Warfare – Began with the ability to use airpower and Chemical, biological, toxic warfare as well as the ability to formulate advanced planning, strategies, contingency planning, modern armor vehicles (tanks) telegraph and telephone, speeding up the ability to communicate and disseminate information. These technologies were truly paradigmatic anomalies in comparison to earlier generations. WWI through WWII

Fourth Generation Warfare began in 1945 with the use of Nuclear Weapons and the return to total devastation as an option for victory over military constituents but as well there was a belief to spare civilian populations not supporting a war effort and a respect for the neutrality of some countries exempting them from the belligerence of either faction.

Fifth Generation Warfare comes about us not through a war of terror, as this is not particularly new. Rather the use of the internet and the control of the scale of force; scalability, which is akin to a programmer wiping out an entire national energy network yet being able to pinpoint the delivery and effectiveness as well as the degree and magnitude of its effect in time and valuations. The use of information and media, the electronic lased mapped fields of battle through HUD in helmets interconnected by military networks and the concept that the flow of data and information is not bound by borders. The exploitation of media and the self-enactment of fully empowered individuals with enough resources to cause ultimate devastation to civilization is the characteristic of Fifth generation Warfare.

Currently there is a decisive trend in ascertaining the ability to achieve rapid and decisive victory by integration of joint forces under a centralized command. There are several key points which are brought forward and have intimate correlation with the lessons learnt from recent conflict.

1.      The most important issue and first criteria before any decisive operational force projection is initiated is the Control of Information across the board.

2.      The next key component is to Shape the Battlespace

a.       In line with this requirement is to deny the enemy of any information of the battlespace.

b.      Ensuring freedom of access to the battlespace

Delineating the current Generational Model of Tactical Combat

It is often said that state-centric elements comprise the larger force however this is not necessarily an accurate assumption. Many small groups synchronizing tactical combat actions interconnect through networks which cover extensive areas. Realistically, an effective war-fighting force which is immediately deployable to the active battlefield is not entirely dependent upon the total number of combatants of either faction operating within a Tactical locality. The magnitude of scalability also includes access to the battle region by air, ground (including subterranean) and naval support. Counter-measures such as obstructions, traps, explosives and impassable terrain coupled with effective tactics, may serve to limit the extent of force projection aggregation and augmentation. Ultimately, as is the case in Afghanistan, smaller specialized forces have greater mobility and flexibility. Lo-tech and hi-tech remote controlled devices are widely used by both sides and incursive elements remain wholly-dependent on the supply of munitions. As with any foreign operation, success must be measured in terms of sustainability and successful completion of mission objectives.

Guerilla Warfare-like tactics are commonly put to use both offensively and defensively or because strategic consideration need to employ clandestine actions to resolve circumstances in order to take or retain the initiative. This is both a solution to fighting an overwhelming opponent as well as fighting in a foreign territory.

The all important factor justifying armed incursion as a defensive act of national security is in response or in pre-emption to any Tactical strike against non-combatants that exploits civilian targets which have no military affiliation and is widely recognized as an act of international terrorism.

The ultimate objective of warfare technology is either to leave nothing remaining or create a better environment for recovery. In order to conserve resources and preserve the infrastructure, total responsibility must be taken to observe consequences which are consistent to system conservation. Modern technology can provide unprecedented accuracy and penetrating devastation but realizing the survival of the infrastructure is vitally important to enduring peace

Sociological and technological transformations are already present in every theater of operations, from village to forest to city, now becoming apparent to the individual soldier or police officer, that what was once highly specialized and belonging to elite units has become the necessary evolution at the tactical level and the result of the special operatives training, whose original purpose was always an upgrade all tactical combat as a whole and individually per agent. Modern guerilla tactics attempt to exploit the weaknesses of larger conventional military organizations. Tactical Force Response relies on experience, superior tactics, deep infiltration, the support and the acknowledgement of the community.

While many great legendary thinking soldiers and war-fighters set the standard of modern combat, in reality a new dimension of sophistication is available and suitable to the technological 21st Century forces upholding security, utilizing Biomechanical Combat Kinematics, which allows intelligential tactics to become second nature as a instantaneous and spontaneous thought into action process. The goal orientation of Simultaneous Methodology is through a process of clear mental acuity forming empathic sensitivity awareness in order to use Simultaneous counter-attack. The 4 Criteria of 1) Kinetic Objectives, 2), Critical Processing of Intervals 3) Mental Envisagement and 4) Simultaneity is literally a prescription to Maneuver Warfare.

Common Grounds of Military and Law Enforcement Special Tactics

Now in today’s realm the methodological gap between military operations in urban areas and special response law enforcement narrows to the point where the only discernable tactical differences exist in specific tasking and within the requirements of lethality. The inherent relationship between specialized teams of Military, Military Police and Law Enforcement exists for several reasons. Primarily, as the asymmetric battlefield encompasses non-military localities, urban warfare and terrorism are both types of incursive military projection; consequently tactical combat and policing actions share stringent rules and conduct codes concerning non-uniformed constituents. Also homeland security incident management and intelligence sharing protocol necessitates a homogenous infrastructure to interface national defense elements and local police services. Hasty reaction to an amorphous antagonist and the over-reliance of military doctrine as a valid domestic SOP to protect the public can create contradictory protocol.

Defining Victory                                                                                 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

There are three major changes which must be realized in response to “New-generation” conflict. The first is the need to understand the system of thought or the contextual characteristics of the opposing forces rather than the content of battle tactics through the conduct of war-fighters.

Secondly, any conflict can be fought and won without physical confrontation, e.g. by influence or bribery. Battles can be won by indirect means, through usurpation or the stealth extermination of key individuals.

Thirdly, though conventional doctrine delineates warfare at three levels; Strategic, Operational or Tactical, in reality today’s battlefield extends into communities with businesses and residences which means victory is not the completion of the physical battle but where post-conflict operations including changes to political and military leadership have the moral support of the local community.

The Tactical Level

Tactical Combat in its doctrine level definition is the offensive action taken upon the determination of a Level Three Threat. A Level Three threat is the highest and most dangerous threat as according to its ability to conduct combat operations and the scope of its intelligence gathering applicability. A Level Three threat implies an active multiple service combined-arms force capable of causing severe disruption of strategic objectives or destruction vital to friendly interests. However, law enforcement departments and agencies now include tactical combat teams which respond to any act of extreme violence.

The Tactical Combat mission is always a derivative action which is in context to the Operational process. This relationship does not preclude independent planning or mission command especially in single, limited duration interdiction or operations involving unconventional incursion.

Tactical primarily denotes a level of warfare. As well it is one of four levels of warfare planning. These levels are strategic, operational, tactical and technical which are differentiated according to the size of Force commitment and as a diverse hierarchy of command. In the context of these structural functions, the Strategic involves the overall Theater of War which may be an international region where the decision process, authorizations, policy and delineations impacts more than one Theater of Operation. A Theater of Operation is that subdivision which focuses on one major threat for which it conducts military operations and the administration of all combat personnel, support and logistics which can sustain the size of the forces and fires accordingly and as long as munitions are available.

Tactical Movement is initiated whenever forward reconnaissance is required. Every move order requires an authorization and will include a detailing of important parameters and specifications as per the requirements according to the time, size and destination. The primary responsibility of the tactical component is to defend itself during the course of the observations so that crucial intelligence is retained thoroughly and can be deciphered in its entirety. Tactical movement is critical as it returns intelligence, and shows the range of mobility and likely résistance, as well as probing potential weaknesses of defenses, detection systems, but most importantly it represents the ability to take the strategic initiative into new areas of operation.

Tactical Deployment during Force Projection

Tactical deployment involves tactical elements, procedures and countermeasures as part of the Response or Deterrence component during Force Projection Operations. Force Projection is a show of aggressive force against an immediate threat and the steps taken in post conflict operations. Force Projection is a total crisis management solution which begins with crisis-action planning, training, anticipatory intelligence and pre-deployment preparations. The actual Operations begin with mobilization and the formulation of an operational concept which will determine the type of combat force, battle preparations, mission logistics and engineering requirements. The sequence of Force Projection Operations is mobilization, pre-deployment, deployment, Entry ops, Combat, Conflict Termination, Post-conflict, Redeployment and Demobilization. The entire infrastructure is physically dependent upon two critical Tactical components; the integrity of the Force Protection Systems and the completion of combat engineering tasks.

Special Tactics                                                              BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Special Tactics is the appurtenance of advanced combat resources and capabilities specific to the rapid deployment of special objectives task-oriented multi-role fighting teams. The three most important characteristics of the fighters are 1) the degree of experience, 2) the level of maturity to take decisive action and effectuate self-enacted creativity and 3) knowledge of the regional area, the culture, language, terrain, sociology and psychology.

Special Combat Ops are vastly different than Special Tactics Responders. Specialized military teams prepare battlefields, use stealthy and clandestine measures to insert Combat Controllers, exploit sophisticated deception tactics, Para rescue, and include combat weather personnel. Functions include austere airfield and assault zone reconnaissance, surveillance, rear area infiltration, exfiltration, psy ops, assist combat engineers for obstructions placement, and terminal control. The objective is to gather intelligence, and deploy into inaccessible areas. Special Operations can impact every aspect in a Theater of Operations. Special Tactics Police and First Responders assist to contain and to provide fire support, sharpshooters and assault teams in hostage rescue, structure and barricade clearing, tactical riot and snatch extraction, to provide or assist in close protection, and to breach or use dynamic entry formations. The Objective is control the tactical environment and to save lives through precision formations and extreme efficiency of close combat.

Force Protection

It is important to understand the critical role of Force Protection which specifically involves the defense and security ascertainment of Tactical operators and the envelope of operations within the reach of the Force itself. Protection of the Force is a policing action necessary to ensure the security of the base of operations and includes meticulous security posts and patrols, aggressive intelligence gathering activities, intensive detection, provide vital fire to protect lives, maintain the integrity of security processes by deadly preemption, provide rapid humanitarian response, make difficult and dangerous rescue, and facilitate defense engineering.

Combat Engineers

Combat Engineers will analyze the terrain’s ability to facilitate the flow of mechanized support and communications and a geological threshold for clearance, coverage, weight bearing and wind conditions can be factored in. Engineering controls road construction, blockade placement, obstacle and traps clearing and positioning. The securing or regaining control of any area previously lost may reveal important facts which will be taken into account for damage control planning, establishing transport routes for infiltration and viable exits as well as providing critical keys for locating traps and preventing ambush, greatly assisting the set up area defenses, protection of munitions, developing deception operations to coincide with other actions. Determining likely Courses of Action involves intelligence preparation and planning, maneuver control and sustainability. Analysis of positions relative to the technical character of the terrain, personnel and weapons systems, logistical support and time-frame of mission duration are essential in developing a synchronization matrix. Ultimately the depth of reconnaissance and preparation of intelligence depends on the reliability of the sources which include remote sensors, satellite, friendly observers, and first-hand studies by special exploratory units who have a high level of expertise in weaponry, tactics, stealth, special transport, EW, and Close Quarters skills. The effectiveness of the planning and the time to initiate specific actions are most heavily reliant on accurate intelligence.

Post conflict                                                                 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

As warfare closes, the capabilities of military Special Ops and Law Enforcement Special Response Units become mutually supportive, especially as many missions involve clearing built-up urban areas, and providing Combined Operations support and training for friendly enforcement units, extractions and tactical snatch in hostile areas as well as tactical riot formations, and crowd control tactics which may or may not be within the perimeters of the secure zone.

Integration of Protocol

Tactical Combat concerns the effective integration of the three combat sciences fundamental to expertise in Special Tactics: Team Assault, Combat Marksmanship, and Tactical Close-Quarters Combat. Propagation is the training of an administrative core and Implementation is the field use of the operational methodology.

The National Security Bureau Directive

In the early 1980's Lt Gen Wego Chiang, Secretary General of Taiwan's National Security Bureau in conjunction with Minister of the Interior, Wu Poh-hsiung, issues a national directive calling for the creation of National Special Tactics Units to combat heavily armed, organized crime. ROC Marine Corp Chief of Staff Maj. General Lo Chang accepting the position of National Police Commissioner, formalizes three criteria which guides the selection and implementation process of special tactical combat protocol:

1.The combat protocol must be exclusive to Special Tactics use. Its training and methodologies are classified and unavailable to the general public

2.The selection system must use real-time rigorous testing and meet the highest international standards. The approval process must be free of influence peddling

3.The training methodology must be non-contradictory to law enforcement purposes of interdiction. The training must tightly integrate close quarters extraction, combat marksmanship and assault team tactics.

The Selection                                                                 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

After the comprehensive examination of over 300 systems and instructors, the National Police Administration Special Training Division picks the APA Tactical simultaneous counter attack terror interdiction methodology of high-speed extraction, tactical riot, close security and advanced Maneuver Warfare as the official Tactical CQC protocol.

In the following months Chief Instructor Chris Mar finalizes APA field documentation and multi-media training support materials with Group Commander Jerry Chen and 15 APA Assistant Instructors. The APA Instruction Team conduct the first 10 week 350 National Police Instructors to form the foundation for APA Tactical CQC Long Term Training regimen.

After the first group of National Police Instructors complete special tactics training, exemplary active -duty officers from various departments form the First Division SWAT Teams and complete 8 weeks of intensive training. Courses include APA-CQC, Combat Marksmanship, Combat Assault team, Advanced Criminology, structure clearing, dynamic entry, combat stress marksmanship, tactical rappel, and advanced high speed vehicle control.

The Role of Special Tactics Force Response

Tactical Combat is an engagement of battle which can fall outside of conventional circumstances because of the unorthodox nature innate to foreign regions where incursion and interdiction can reverse roles and will have enormous affect on the methods used for disruption. This involves actions or capabilities which fall outside the parameters for standard forces or services, compelling the incorporation of tactics which are specialized to the exact on-going conditions especially to access advantageous positions. At sometime the strategic objectives will come second to the need to survive the fight.

Special Tactics Teams around the world are borne from necessity wrought by the nature of Tactical Combat. Prior to the inception of Special Operations or SWAT type teams’ only regularly trained units were available to respond to all circumstances of force and violence. In cases of unusual or extreme behavior such as heavily armed barricaded subjects, overwhelming force in numbers was thought to be the most effective way to successfully establish control; however it became clear that small numbers of organized teams with adequate firepower and strategic positions could control a combat zone against much larger groups. In an urban environment involving response from law enforcement, persons in the act of crime could easily predict the coming response level and prepare ambush as well as counterattack. Other essential aspects of Tactical Combat include the role of infiltration, rescue, extraction teams, observation, controller, tactical riot, target snatch, and close security among other specializations involving volatile human conflict.

The success of the missions depend greatly on extensive planning as well as expertise in demolitions, camouflage, capability to move quickly without sound, systematically clear structures, natural and man-made, with equipment suitable to meet the most hazardous conditions and having a concise knowledge of defensive tactics. A common issue for tactical war-fighters is the need for independent logistics support for short range conflict. A common characteristic is having extraordinaire stamina especially in severe climates. They are expert with ballistics, silent communication, synchronization of formations, horizontal thinking, and deadly expertise in close-quarters combat and deadly accurate marksmanship.

The most important outcome of building SWAT, Counterterrorist, Special Response, and Rapid Deployment Teams is the creation of a system of administration and a propagation protocol to accomplish the rapid advancement of skills and technologies throughout the general Forces. Team members train tactical support teams and many are qualified as instructors. Members are allocated into operational detachment size units or teams as according to the scope and objectives of the mission as well as by individual expertise and the integrated function of each unit. The teams are highly trained, physically adept, mentally unified and technologically sophisticated in battle tactic capabilities which include logistical effectiveness, advanced personal weaponry and fighting skills. The need to implement units capable of undertaking Tactical Combat missions including operations in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments, for counter proliferation, or when there is the clear indication of armed hostile threat and high risk conditions requiring the rapid deployment of Special Response, Internal Security, or Special Operation Teams for Non-conventional Assisted Recovery or in order to bring the threat and tactical environment under control. Special Tactical Forces are specifically trained for operations which fall outside of the scope of capabilities or requirements for conventional forces. The strategic requirement concerning the Force Protection and Deployment may be against an entity with mass destruction capabilities, including Explosive and Incendiary Devices, Biologic Agents, Chemical Toxins, and Radioactive Material, may require low visibility, clandestine, or covert capabilities in isolated circumstances and areas independent of conventional support. Tactical Teams specialize in the interdiction of violent conflict and antagonism by barricaded subjects, Extraction, Close Protection and Securing Control over the target area; or threat of large scale destruction and exploitation of terror.

Objectives                                                                     BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

While the job of the Tactical Team is invariably to obtain the highest probability of bringing the immediate Tactical Environment under total control the First priority will be the isolation of the constituents. Units entering into the area of concern will establish a command center and a simulation site as close to the actual situation as possible. Each team will:

i.   Identify and assess the site terrain and targets, 
ii. Gain advantageous pre-entry positions, 
iii. Establish a perimeter which encompasses the target area.
iv. Open lines of communication for combat control.
v.   Hostage Rescue will set up negotiation as well as a secure tactical line.

Combat Controller

An essential element of Military Special Tactical Combat is the Combat Controller who is first deployed into restricted environments to assess and establish a drop, landing or extraction zone for forward area activities. Each Combat Controller is a certified Air Traffic Controller capable of handling military operations air support and the dynamic conditions of battlefield air traffic. Undergoing the most intensive physical and technical training available, Combat Controllers are expert with small arms, intelligence gathering, technical terrain surveying, limited weather observations and specialized demolition for clearing obstructions and hazards from potential runways and landing zones.

Threat and Risk Assessment

The following list outlines the Planning, Organization, Staffing, Implementation and Control stages of Threat and Risk Assessment.

1. Vulnerability Assessment and Threat Detection
2. Monitoring and Occurrence Prediction
3. Protection and Mitigation
4. Information Assurance
5. Risk Management
6. Contingency Planning
7. Attack Modeling

Real-time intelligence is the one of the most challenging aspects of Tactical Combat. The accuracy and clarity of Surveillance, Exploratory and Observation directly impacts the effectiveness of analysis and ultimate decision making. Securing the Base of Operations by way of intrusion detection is possible through a wide array of advanced electronic equipment and innovative usage. Systems include:

i.    Field radar, Motion Detection,  
ii.   Thermal imaging, Video Monitoring
iii. Optic cable inspection, Vision Enhancement,
iv.   IR Bounce Listening, Decibel Metering
v.    Long Range Surveillance, Stealth Recon
vi.   Decoy, Trapping, Lure
vii. Biometrics, Encrypting, Code and Signals 
viii. Electronic Interception, Scanning, EW, ECM
ix.   Penetration Methodologies, Services Denial

Defining Task and Target

Ultimately tactical missions involve limited range rapid incursion into targeted areas by specialized technical teams to secure classified matter from prolonged possession by undesirable elements, where to apprehend means to take into custody. Custody does not necessitate removal. Securing implies taking control with force protection with or without capture. Capture means to take a person by force. Capture is always part of apprehension but to apprehend does not always include force.

 A. Secure includes:
   a) Rescue - to save from danger
   b) Extract - to move from unsecured conditions to an area of safety
   c) Remove - to physically take away
   d) Destroy - to cause demolishment
   e) Apprehend - to take into custody
   f) Coerce - to use threat or force to cause 
   g) Interrogate - to pose questions to transmit
   h) Conceal - hiding from discovery
B. Matter implies 
   a) Entities - one or more of that which exists 
   b) Materials - tangible substances
   c) Equipment - objects of use 
   d) Information - cognizant data
   e) Sites - designated location
C. Elements' means 
   a) Forces - composite groups
   b) Person's) - self and other people
   c) Areas - positional locale
   d) Conditions - state of circumstances 
   e) Actions - activities of process

The Primary Objective                                                    BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Tactical Combat Teams Special Operations often involve, as a primary objective, the saving of lives or extracting targeted individuals. In this use, extraction is the process of removing constituents from a targeted site when it is considered imperative that they be immediately relocated out of a hostile environment and taken to a Secured Area under friendly control. Extraction may imply the rescuing of entities from grave danger or immediate conditions that they are incapable of surviving within. Both Extraction and Rescue may be for unsuspecting and/or unwilling persons and involve rapid deployment, dynamic defense of the moving tactical envelope and high-speed extrication by a Special Force Protection Team.

Unit differentiation

Where there are many strata of national and local level defense or security, from Department of Defense military systems and Federal Agencies to local Law Enforcement police units, a tactical team generally indicates the smallest operationally functional unit of trained individuals grouped into the following unit designation: 1. A Detachment (3 to 5 men) is known as a Fire Team (a 4 man unit). 2. A Squad comprises of 3 Fire Teams (12-15 people) & a Team Leader 3. A Platoon is made of 3 Squads and a Platoon Leader. There are 3 Fire Teams within a Squad of 12 to 15 operators which includes one Team Leader (Staff Sergeant Level) and 3-4 Squads per Platoon with a Platoon Leader (Lieutenant or Instructor in rank).

Behavioral Distinction

Tactical implies the implementation of evolved and intelligent behavior made second nature versus hyper-conditioning of reflex and intuitive behavior. The training and thinking processes are brought together under a fundamental tactical plan or approach, where the objectives of the solitary combatant and his equipment are applied according to the needs and initiatives of the strategic overview.


To delineate contextual terminology, the term “Combat”, as in Combat Sciences, refers to technologies and systems specific to the Tactical Infrastructure in Force Protection, Bio-kinematics Analytic Targeting, Binary Bio-Dynamic Common Denominators, and Field Protocol, and “Battle” is the active physical involution of force on force confrontation where, if not contained and/or resolved, has immediate potential to escalate and spill-over into adjunctive areas.

INFRASTRUCTURE                                                                                    BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

A Unified Tactical Infrastructure is accomplished by the integration of the three primary combat systems; Team Assault, Combat Marksmanship and Close Quarters Combat. The employment of Tactical Combat functionality, while inseparable as the deterrent to antagonism and coercion, is exclusive to the conditions and standards of judicious Law Enforcement and rules of Military Engagement. As well, the technical training methodology and systems of knowledge are exclusive to a very limited quantity and special selection of members of constabulary and national security services, not for reasons of exclusivity, imposition of limitations for inclusion or restrictive confidentiality within the force services, but because of the sophistication and advanced learning requirements of these specific sciences taking into consideration the extremely limited quantity of qualified instructors in proportion to the total number of members in active service. Ideally all personnel of the services should understand and physically train in the manner of Special Operatives, because the higher the level of skill throughout, the greater the ability to effectively engage in wider theatres of operation and the greater the spectrum of tasks that can be accommodated.

Chief Tactical Instructor Chris Mar

Summary of Background

• First certified Chief Instructor
 Taiwan SWAT and Rapid Response Forces
• First certified Chief Instructor 
 PRC Special Armed Antiterrorist Group - TACTICAL CQC
•Private Instructor - King Hassan II Rabat, Morocco 
• Medal of Meritorious Action
Tactical Groups
•Chief Instructor – SPG – PLAAPF Special Armed Ops Forces
 Antiterrorist Instrs GRP
•Chief Instructor – Taiwan - ROCNPA SWAT Teams Nat'l Tactical
•Chief Instructor - Tactical CQC - Nat'l Police 
 Chief Instrs Long Term Training
•Chief Instructor - Special Operations Police Force, NPA 
•Chief Instructor - Taipei County Rapid Deployment 
 Emergency Response Force
•Chief Instructor - SWAT Tactical Riot 
•Chief Instructor - Tactical Baton 
 National Instructors Training Program
•Chief Instructor - NPA Tactical Control Systems 
 SpecTac Teams ResQ & Extraction
•Chief Instructor - SWAT Executive Security 
 Government VIP Close Protection
International Groups
•Chief Instructor - Tactical Baton - Saudi Arabia 
Spec Forces Officers Team
•Chief Instructor - Tactical CQC 
Malawi Special Royal Guards
•Chief Instructor - Tactical Riot
Jordanian Specialized Task Force
Tactical Combat Training Systems Exclusively Developed


APA - Antagonist Perpetrated Aggression, APA Tactical Training System is a proven special force response system which effectively unifies the tactical infrastructure through a national ministry level administration and proliferation process. The emphasis of the systemization is the implementation of Combined Operations Rescue and Extraction and Rapid Reaction Deployment antiterrorist technologies. This Combat Training involves 1) Specialized Combat Marksmanship under conditions of physical and psychological stress, Team Assault formations for search, traversing, clearing, dynamic entry, and ambush 3) Close-Quarters Combat for rescue, extraction, arrest, tactical riot, multiple adjunctive angles, alternative weapons, simultaneous counter-attack and high risk protection. The process of tactical unification is developed through total skill integration and field protocol using four essential elements for analysis and training. These are;

1. Kinetic Objectives - Bio-Kinematics response and Force Compliance 
2. Mental Visualization - Dynamic elements and Targeting Criticality  
3. Simultaneous Interaction - Bio-mechanics, Preparation, Spontaneity
4. Precedence before Priority - Weapons Selection, First Strike Initiate

URBAN AND BUILT-UP AREA GROUND CONTROL                                           BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

99% of all tactical deployment calls for teams to dynamically close distances to the target or targets in order to bring the environment and its constituents under total control. Multiple Interlocking procedures are used to move into entry position for penetration or creating optimal conditions.

The principles of Dynamic Force Confrontation are the culmination of the strategic insight, knowledge, experience and effectiveness of Command HQ and the tactical acuity of Field Commanders in battle.

1. The 5 Elements of Strategy

a. Initiative - opportunity through proaction
b. Depth – expedite with significant impetus and gain
c. Synchronization - the accuracy of linking timed events in concurrence 
d. Agility – effective operability in a wide range of dynamic conditions
e. versatility - the diversity of useful elements

2. 5 Factors to Reconcile

a. Terrain includes the geophysical and man-made conditions of the  tactical environment
b. Intelligence is the understanding of conditions resolved from information gathering
c. Tactics means the approach to the mission through arranging and maneuvering of all elements to the objective  
d. Weaponry involves the weapons and munitions equipping the collective armament 
e. Mass infers the focus of forces at the center of distribution
f.  Center of Gravity implies the source of combat momentum and initiative

3. Tactical Operations Threat Assessment

a. Lethality (Technical) - the applicable deadly force in terms of tactical capability 
b. Reliability (Tactical)  - the effective degree of dependability in relation to the objective
c. Availability (Operational) - the scope of accessibility supportable to the mission
d. Sustainability (Strategic) - the duration of operability according to achievable goals


Tactical combat in an urban environment has two basic modes of operation. This is where the defining of Special and Conventional has most significance.

The Precision Urban Operation depends on the use of Conventional Elements in an operation where there is a mixture of non-combatants and combatants in the locality. This impacts the use of combat force to specific tactics and procedures and implies the adherence to stringent Rules of Engagement; meaning offensive fires must be preceded by warnings when possible and those in civilian apparel can only be engaged defensively. Non-combatants must be separated and protected and combat elements use the Continuum of Force from the lowest Level One to the highest Level Five.

    Level 1. Passive Compliance - will comply with verbal and physical encouragement   

    Level 2. Resisting & uncooperative - is physically resistant without striking requires physical contact

    Level 3. Confrontational hostility - responds with physical contact aggressively and will counterattack

    Level 4. Actively violent and armed - utilizes weapons and tools for armed insurgency

    Level 5. Use of wide-ranging destructive means - employs projectable and extensible weapons of destruction and terror

A Surgical Urban Operation is where Special Missions, Rapid Reaction and Special Tactical Operations teams conduct missions to extract, rescue or control within a built-up environment such as a residential area or business district.


Tactical Combat force engagement conditions and response methodology are specific to special force protection solutions prepared in strategic battle planning which integrates logistical effectiveness, high-speed mobility and sophisticated weapons support.

Rapidly deployable by nature, elite teams’ common objective is the interdiction of terrorism, hostile subterfuge and open confrontation of both domestic and foreign origin.

Procedural emphasis is placed on the complete integration of tactical protocol into a unified system comprising of three essential combat sciences; Team Assault, Close Quarters Combat and Combat Marksmanship.

The Tactical Environment

A tactical environment is the envelope of containment which is continually minimized through the progressive accumulated isolation of the target subject by a proactive force delegation whose activities are based upon a strategic model. Tactical Response is called for when there is imminent threat to safety by an overpowering antagonist.

Perceived Threat                                                                                    BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Perceived threat includes throng turbulence, urban guerrilla combatants and barricaded subjects where conditions may require hostage rescue, selective extraction, exploratory recon, surveillance and VIP Protection.

Operational Intelligence and Situational Awareness are important in the most effective preparation of force protection however superior tactics and weaponry are most essential in obtaining the highest probability of total control over the tactical environment and its constituents.

APA Tactical - Antagonist Perpetrated Aggression

Integration of Special Tactics Combat Protocol Advanced Methodologies for Simultaneous Counter Attack APA–Tactical CQC is the only proven tactical close-quarters-combat system which uses total simultaneous attack and counter during physical interaction. APA provides a non-eclectic and unique Force Response Solution for the full spectrum of conditions facing Special Response Teams in the field. This Tactical Combat System was developed from the ground up under the auspices of Interior Ministry and National Security Bureau efforts to combat increasing threat from armed organized crime. The principle of the training process was to integrate the tactical systems under one unified methodology using force components ideal and specific in use by Rapid Deployment Special Weapons and mobile police networked teams. This included terror interdiction, high-level protection, rescue and extraction and tactical riot. The propagation of the system was nation-wide as well as interfaced with international tactical and emergency deployment forces cooperating in multi-agency operations and cross training programs. The founder of this system is American Chief Tactical Instructor Chris Mar. CERTIFIED by multiple international Military and Law Enforcement agencies involved with Tactical Support and Counterterrorist Response, APA Tactical CQC is documented tried and true, serving 20 years with elite teams live in the field. ACCESS is limited to SWAT, Hostage Rescue, and Rapid Reaction Deployment whose functions focus on Terror Interdiction, Hostage Rescue, Extraction, Team Assault, Tactical Riot and VIP Security. APA Tactical Protocol seamlessly integrates with on-going tactical processes, law enforcement policy and field procedures. This is inclusive of specialized arrest processes, tactical riot formation, and VIP security within the Tactical Close Quarters Combat system.

In the first year

The first group of 300 National Police Instructors underwent 10 weeks of special tactics training which included 120 hours of APA, 80 hours of Combat Marksmanship and 100 hours of Assault Team Dynamics, inclusive of specialized structure clearing, dynamic entry, stress marksmanship, tactical rappel, and advanced high speed vehicle control. Immediately thereafter, exemplary officers from various departments became the First Division of Special Tactics Teams and successfully completed 8 weeks of 12 hours per day, 6 days per week intensive training.

SYSTEM PROPAGATION PRIORITIES                                                            BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. To Provide Documentation,– Full disclosure SOP, on-location Digital Video Learning, Field Guides, Course Materials, Training Equipment. 2. To Facilitate Certification – Establish Course duration and Certification Requirements. 3. To Exhibit and Present – for Heads-of—State, Testing and Reviews, Live Fire Off-Range, Force Extraction, and Tactical Riot Systems. All instructors are Active Tactical Team and expert marksman, combat experienced. Training Duration

   120 hours - Agency Instructor Level, Senior Tactical Commander 
   100 hours- Active Tactical, First Responder
   80 hours - Back-up and Support, Riot Forces, Operations Support 

APA remains the exclusive National SWAT and Spec Ops Presentation method since 1984. APA-CQC has been taught to elite SPG (Special Police Group), antiterrorist instructors, SWAT, Spec Ops, Special Forces, Royal Guard and other tactical teams.


There are 5 levels of Escalation; Passive, Resistance, Hostile Confrontation, Armed Insurgence, Wide Ranging Destructive Energy Within densely populated areas there is a high probability of multiple antagonist confrontation occurrences. Regardless of the circumstances, it is essential that the actions taken by law enforcement to contain do not instead create spill-over or escalation. During operations, the policy of avoiding, if at all possible, dispersed deterrents, lethal or un-natural force, including firearms, tear gas, stun devices, rubber bullets, electricity or chemicals other than marking dyes must be observed. Inappropriate or over approximation of response will result in Accidental Violence.

ORGANIZATION STAGE                                                                             BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Establish a training team of qualified instructors for certification to instruct the CQC tactical training system. Note that while in-keeping with the state-of-the-technology and current international standards in use by SWAT and Rapid Reaction Forces the solution for crisis management is unique to every country. It is highly preferable to create multi-media training materials on-base. To unify the applied training requires the total integration of appropriate close quarters combat into a single all inclusive and consistent logic, specific and exclusive for use by tactical and spec ops only. The training is high speed, intensively demanding and specializes in the total tactical environment of arrest and extraction.


APA is a tactical force response and force protection system based on Simultaneous Counterattack. The ultimate goal aside from situational control is to facilitate rescue and expedite extraction. As such, the mode of deployment for exploration, surveillance, observation or exploitation would be stealth. Stealth applies to Information Systems and any radiating source of energy. In this mode the only reason for confrontation is not to gain or protect ground, but rather when confrontation is unavoidable according to the following three conditions:

1. If safe passage is denied and to hold is untenable

2. In order to avoid over-whelming counter-force

3. When the need to rescue or extract outweighs the danger in doing so.

APA Tactical Combat is not only tactical systems integration; it involves the interpersonal and intra-personal thought process of the individual. To be Inspired, Precise and Decisive means to have the capability to source the creative intelligence from within in order to observe, analyze and act with precision and finality.

APA TACTICAL SYSTEM NOTES                                                                  BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

APA Front Plane transfer, Event Horizons and Worm Holes are Special-Relativistic phenomena of Simultaneous construct. These are coherent particle states approaching infinity. Simultaneity is accessible through the ability to recognize the envelope by the state of mind while physically externalizing the bio-mechanical principles of Simultaneous Methodologies accordingly. The simultaneous duality is an essential characteristic for real-time transverse into a simultaneous envelope. The APA bio-mechanical performance criterion of simultaneity in juxtaposition with spontaneous intelligential objectivity embodies the psycho-physiological 5-dimensional-state where integrated consciousness-awareness is capable of overcoming pre-conception and automatic reflex instinct and then replacing the non-productive values with optimal sophisticated solutions which must be simultaneous to be effective. Objectivity is paramount to truth which is the integral state of being to simultaneity. TRUTH IS A FINITE SEQUENCE OF SIMULTANEOUSLY TRANSITIONAL EVENTS WHICH NEITHER THE OBSERVER NOR PERSPECTIVE AFFECTS. This precludes the observer's influence.

APA has only two interaction modes. System Propagation concerns inter-relaying integration protocol of the training processes and System Implementation is the execution of operating methodology. For example Full-stop, half-step and full-step represent motion components and the sequential processing of transitions for training only - propagation, and the diametric equal of propagation is Implementation which is carried forth by Stop- Attack, Progressive SMAP and Attack to Control, which are the inherent APA phases stop, attack, control.

"Simultaneous activity is not Rapid-Occurring Motion" means Simultaneous Combat precludes Assorted Movement with a high Rate of Change; Simultaneous Interchange is the instantaneous transfer of energy during the physical transition which occurs on the Front Plane which is a singularity (one pulse) rather than a combination or eclectic body of partials.

Full stop is not Frame-by-Frame Stop motion step sequences which are the captured momentary extracts in arbitrarily sliced singular equal intervals whose sum total is an exponent of semi-cycle of fluid motion.

APA Angle Set Propagation is by Full Stop - (Single skills consciousness), Half Step - (Flow process by transitions) and a total Dedicated Angle is a Full Step. The Half-Step is a process to integrate the transitions rather than combine Full-Stops into a sequence. It is the critical process-within-the-process which contains command positions, focus of targeting, perspectives, moving state of dynamics, and is rooted in Simultaneous Multiple Action Process (SMAP).

Implementation (execution of the methodology) concerns terrain, concealment, deception, flanking, counter-counter and resolutions in the following sequence: 1.Search for Opportunity through positional escalation (Closing to Entering) 2.Alternative Facilitation through angle attrition (Pain trigger, resistance reduction, and control manipulation) 3•Stop (Arresting momentum), Attack (Reduce Resistance) and Control (by extraction) are either part of momentary closure or a complete and final resolution.

Do not assume or presume "the Observer" is one person. It is third party inclusive. Therefore mutual cognition refers to all the constituents, which does not necessarily mean that, aside from the APA Applicator, anyone within the envelope, (observer, cause-state or effect-state participant) understands what is transpiring, only that there is a cognition (perception through effect) and not always recognition (acknowledgement by intellect) to the fact. The APA Applicator will definitely have cognizance even though it should be unconsciously competent.

Chief Tactical Instructor Chris Mar                                                                                                 BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Copyright (c) 2004 Chris Mar Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".